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Introduction of jaw crusher

Zhejiang Shengda Machinery Co.,Ltd | Updated: Apr 25, 2017


A jaw crusher uses compressive force for breaking of particle. This mechanical pressure is achieved by the two jaws of the crusher of which one is fixed while the other reciprocates. A jaw or toggle crusher consists of a set of vertical jaws, one jaw is kept stationary and is called a fixed jaw while the other jaw called a swing jaw, moves back and forth relative to it, by a cam or pitman mechanism, acting like a class II lever or a nutcracker. The volume or cavity between the two jaws is called the crushing chamber. The movement of the swing jaw can be quite small, since complete crushing is not performed in one stroke. The inertia required to crush the material is provided by a weighted flywheel that moves a shaft creating an eccentric motion that causes the closing of the gap.

Jaw crushers are heavy duty machines and hence need to be robustly constructed. The outer frame is generally made of cast iron or steel. The jaws themselves are usually constructed from cast steel. They are fitted with replaceable liners which are made of manganese steel, or Ni-hard (a Ni-Cr alloyed cast iron). Jaw crushers are usually constructed in sections to ease the process transportation if they are to be taken underground for carrying out the operations.

Jaw crushers are classified on the basis of the position of the pivoting of the swing jaw

1.    Blake crusher-the swing jaw is fixed at the upper position

2.    Dodge crusher-the swing jaw is fixed at the lower position

3.    Universal crusher-the swing jaw is fixed at an intermediate position

The Blake crusher was patented by Eli Whitney Blake in 1858. The Blake type jaw crusher has a fixed feed area and a variable discharge area. Blake crushers are of two types- single toggle and double toggle jaw crushers.

In the single toggle jaw crushers, the swing jaw is suspended on the eccentric shaft which leads to a much more compact design than that of the double toggle jaw crusher. The swing jaw, suspended on the eccentric, undergoes two types of motion- swing motion towards the fixed jaw due to the action of toggle plate and vertical movement due the rotation of the eccentric. These two motions, when combined, lead to an elliptical jaw motion. This motion is useful as it assists in pushing the particles through the crushing chamber. This phenomena leads to higher capacity of the single toggle jaw crushers but it also results in higher wear of the crushing jaws. These type of jaw crushers are preferred for the crushing of softer particles.

In the double toggle jaw crushers, the oscillating motion of the swing jaw is caused by the vertical motion of the pitman. The pitman moves up and down. The swing jaw closes, i.e., it moves towards the fixed jaw when the pitman moves upward and opens during the downward motion of the pitman. This type is commonly used in mines due to its ability to crush tough and abrasive materials.

In the Dodge type jaw crushers, the jaws are farther apart at the top than at the bottom, forming a tapered chute so that the material is crushed progressively smaller and smaller as it travels downward until it is small enough to escape from the bottom opening. The Dodge jaw crusher has a variable feed area and a fixed discharge area which leads to choking of the crusher and hence is used only for laboratory purposes and not for heavy duty operations.


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